Download PDF by Y. Miura (auth.): Advances in Biochemical Engineering, Volume 4
By Y. Miura (auth.)
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Additional info for Advances in Biochemical Engineering, Volume 4
Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 118 120 t21 1. Introduction Freely suspended microorganisms often occur in groupings or flocs with a characteristic size many orders of magnitude greater than that of a single microorganism. g. aluminium and calcium chloride (Aiba and Nagatani, 1971), or floc size can be decreased by increased shear (Aiba and Nagatani, 1971) or surface-active agents (Mallette, 1969).
3 Terminology The occurence of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plant and animal cells, as multicellular colonies, has led to the use of a varied and imprecise terminology. The reasons for this are largely to be found in the scientific and technological divisions under which the various organisms have been studied. Virtually the same phenomena has been described as aggregation, clumping, flocculation, and pellet formation. The term aggregation has most often been used with embryonic cells, while bacterial cultures are described as clumping.
40 Y. Miura Tsao, G. : Biotechnol. Bioeng 10, 765 (1968). Tsao, G. : ibid. 11, 1071 (1969). Tsao, G. : ibid. 12, 51 (1970). Tsao, G. , Lee, Y. : Proceedings of the 4th International Fermentaion Symposium, 65 (1972). , Williams, G. , Langlois, G. : Chem. Eng. , 51, 85F (1955). Wegrich, O. , Shurter, R. : Ind. Eng. Chem. 45, 1153 (1953). Westerterp, K. , Dierendonck, L. L van, Dekraa, J. : Chem. Eng. Sci.. 18, 157 (1963). Wise, D. L , Wang, D. I. , Mateles, R. : Biotechnol. Bioeng. 11,647 (1969).
Advances in Biochemical Engineering, Volume 4 by Y. Miura (auth.)