Advances in Democracy: From the French Revolution to the - download pdf or read online
By Heather M Campbell
Starting with the commercial Revolution, Europe used to be seized via the spirit of political and social innovation and reform that has endured into the twenty first century. the overall surroundings of the continent, mirrored within the Romantic, Realist, and Modernist pursuits that swept via its countries, mirrored a growing to be awareness of formerly ignored social realities that demanded motion. This attractive quantity chronicles Europes ameliorations from the overdue 18th century during the current and examines the eu reaction to either prosperity and battle.
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Extra resources for Advances in Democracy: From the French Revolution to the Present-Day European Union (A History of Western Civilization)
The revolution was beginning to become a European phenomenon. Jacobin rule was replaced by a more moderate consolidation after 1795, during which, however, military expansion continued in several directions, notably in parts of Italy. The needs of war, along with recurrent domestic unrest, prompted a final revolutionary regime change, in 1799, that brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power. The Napoleonic Era Napoleon ruled for 15 years, closing out the quarter-century so dominated by the French Revolution.
This was followed by a concerted effort at political reaction and a renewed series of revolutions from 1820 through 1848. Connections between political change and socioeconomic upheaval were real but complex. Economic grievances associated with early industrialization fed into later revolutions, particularly the outbursts in 1848, but the newest social classes were not prime bearers of the revolutionary message. Revolutions also resulted from new political ideas directed against the institutions and social arrangements of the preindustrial order.
Russia, indeed, seemed largely exempt from the political currents swirling in the rest of the continent, partly because of the absence of significant social and economic change. A revolt by some liberal-minded army officers in 1825 (the Decembrist revolt) was put down with ease, and a new tsar, Nicholas I, installed a more rigorous system of political police and censorship. Nationalist revolt in Poland, a part of the 1830 movement, was suppressed with great force. Russian diplomatic interests continued to follow largely traditional lines, with recurrent warfare with the Ottoman Empire in an effort to gain territory to the south.
Advances in Democracy: From the French Revolution to the Present-Day European Union (A History of Western Civilization) by Heather M Campbell