Read e-book online Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 193 PDF
By Peter W. Hawkes
The 2 chapters that fill this quantity describe instruments for learning the brightness of electron beams and for analysing the homes of mass spectrometers.
First, L.D. Duffy and A.J. Dragt introduce the idea that of eigen-emittance. 3 kinematic invariants are linked to charged-particle beams, in linear shipping mode. those invariants are referred to as eigen-emittances and a examine in their houses makes it attainable to tailor the beam to slot the applying in query. the idea relies at the inspiration of sym-plectic beam shipping, an issue on which A.J. Dragt has already contributed to those Advances (Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics, sixty seven, 1986, 65—120, with E. Forest). The authors first recapitulate the elemental conception ahead of explaining how the emittance will be tailored as required. the rest of the bankruptcy, which shape a quick treatise at the topic, provides a number of applications.
In the second one bankruptcy, I. Spivak-Lavrov describes at size methods of analysing the houses of either static and time-of-flight mass spectrometers and of devising new designs. The optics of those tools is decided out intimately, in an try and make the object self-contained. a lot Russian paintings is pointed out, frequently from journals that aren't to be had in English translation and now and again, should not commonly to be had outdoor their nations of beginning.
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Additional info for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 193
Generally, when torsion of the axial trajectory is not zero, the curvilinear coordinates of that system are not locally orthogonal. This leads to difficulty when calculating potential gradients at off-axial points. Only the three base vectors of the axial trajectory are orthogonal. In this chapter, it is shown that by connecting coordinate points in Cartesian coordinates with curvilinear 51 Analytical Methods for the Calculation and Simulation coordinates, potential gradients can be calculated in Cartesian coordinates so that the design can be carried out using orthogonal basis vectors, which are tied to the axial trajectory.
Case 1 (top): X-Y and PX-τ correlations result in two small and one large eigenemittance. Case 2 (center): X-Y and PY-τ correlations give one large, one small and one relatively unchanged eigen-emittance. Case 3 (bottom): Independent X-Y and Z-X correlations give two large and one small eigen-emittance. 4 for the emittances associated with the X/Y/τ dimensions. 41 Row Index Utilizing the Eigen-Emittance Concept for Bright Electron Beams Xc PXc Yc PYc tc Pt c 1 2 3 4 5 6 X0 PX 0 1 2 Column Index Y0 PY 0 3 4 A B C D E F t0 Pt 0 5 6 B A D C F E Figure 2 Chart of independent correlations leading to two small eigen-emittances.
While the combined FBT and EEX (FBT + EEX) schemes mentioned in the previous section involves all three spatial degrees of freedom, it only alters two of the eigen-emittance values. , PX-Y and PY-X). If correlations for the transverselongitudinal emittance manipulations are introduced to the bunch, it occurs downstream, and this and the following EEX (or XZFBT) section can be treated independent of the FBT. As no other correlations between degrees of freedom are assumed in the bunch, the FBT + EEX scheme can be decomposed into two 4-D phase space manipulations without considering the full 6-D phase space.
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 193 by Peter W. Hawkes