Physical Chemistry

Download e-book for kindle: Analysis of Surfactants by Thomas M. Schmitt

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By Thomas M. Schmitt

ISBN-10: 0824704495

ISBN-13: 9780824704490

A textual content and reference giving a realistic account of equipment the choice and comprehension of commercially vital person surfactants, in addition to these in compounds. Describes the make-up and structural drawings for an array of surfactants, reports recommendations for deciding upon them within the surroundings, and extra.

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5-mL aliquots of CHC13. 5-mL methanol washes. The methanol solution is evaporated to dryness to expel CHC13, and the residue is redissolved in water or methanol. The HPLC system should be capable of ternary gradient operation and have a column compartment thermostatted at 35°C. Detection is by UV absorbance at 225 nm. 6 x 250 mm. 0 with NaOH. 0 mL/min. A linear gradient is used, beginning with 10:50:40 TBAHSO4/water/acetonitrile. During the first 30 min, ^O is lowered to 10%, increasing CH3CN to 80%.

Additional background information on alkylarylsulfonates can be found in other volumes of the Surfactant Science Series (50,51). 1. Alkyl Chain Length Distribution As the alkyl chain length of LAS increases, surface activity, sensitivity to water hardness, and solution viscosity increase while water solubility decreases. For most applications, the C] i-Ci3 range provides the best mix of properties. The average alkyl chain length must be known for proper calibration of the titration method for determination of LAS.

In principle, this approach could also be applied to LAS, after desulfonation. (a) Elemental analysis. Elemental analysis for the atomic ratio of carbon and sulfur will give the average chain length by simple calculation. This value must be used with caution, since if the surfactant contains appreciable quantities of impurities, such as sodium sulfate or disulfonated alkylbenzene, these must be quantitatively determined and suitable corrections made. (b) Desulfonation and gas chromatography. As discussed further in Chapter 8, GC analysis of alkylarylsulfonates is possible if the methyl ester derivatives are made or if the compounds are desulfonated.

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Analysis of Surfactants by Thomas M. Schmitt


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