Nature Ecology

Read e-book online Animal Ecology To-Day PDF

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By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)

ISBN-10: 940175845X

ISBN-13: 9789401758451

ISBN-10: 9401763100

ISBN-13: 9789401763103

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Extra info for Animal Ecology To-Day

Sample text

Triple band of·hyperbolae (I); local life-histories (II) of the three hyperbolae, and succession of generations (III) at Tel Aviv calculated and observed for the Red Spider Anychus latus. 44 And whereas in insects the fertilization of the eggs precedes oviposition, as a rule, only for a very short period, we may define the period of development as lasting from birth (oviposition of parents) to first oviposition. g. egg, each larval and the pupal stage, preoviposition period). This hyperbola comprehends therefore the whole prereproductive period of the animal.

Oviposition and activity is resumed in the autumn (late September), and the beetles die soon afterwards. The second generation develops from their eggs in October. Some of these adults oviposit, forming a IA generation. A small proportion only of the eggs of this IA generation develops successfully into beetles which lay very few eggs during the winter. These eggs do not develop. The few survivors participate in the formation of the normal first generation. The generation IA is therefore also of little importance in the maintenance of the species.

The typical life-history of Coccinella septempunctata L. within the Euro-Siberian region is as follows: One generation develops during summer, coinciding with the season of aphid abundance. The young beetles hide for about seven months between leaves or in crevices. Climatic as well as food conditions must be considered as favourable. - For five to zero months the average temperature falls below the development threshold, but never considerably. Average temperatures surpass 23 ° C. for 2 to 4 months during summer, thus enforcing semi-estivation.

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Animal Ecology To-Day by F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)


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